Why did the Eastern Han Dynasty appear official professional?These three kinds of official selection system, do not appear big family is strange

2022-08-02 0 By

Why The Three Kingdoms?As we said in the last article, Liu Xiu made a series of institutional designs at the founding of the Eastern Han Dynasty, including the abolition of the prime minister and the imperial government, the dismissal of meritocratic officials, and the suppression of tycoons and supporters, in order to ensure that no one could challenge the imperial power and split the empire.What Liu Xiu did not expect, however, was that two factors that he did not expect upset his vision and made the breakup of the empire a historical certainty.The first factor was liu Xiu’s most assured and what he considered the royal family’s natural Allies, the scholars.After their crazy growth, the scholars changed and became a power group that could compete with the emperor for power.Why did the scholars change?This has a lot to do with the system of promoting officials in the Eastern Han Dynasty.Those who are familiar with Chinese history know that the politics of pre-Qin belonged to aristocratic politics, and all the officials were hereditary nobles. Your father niubi followed niubi.After the first Emperor of qin united the six states, he attacked the aristocracy with all his might, so that no one could gain privileges and they were all slaves as equals.By the time of the Western Han Dynasty, the central government continued to crack down on the remnants of the aristocracy and did not let them revive.The question was, who would govern for the emperor when the nobles were gone?The answer is known to all that the government of the Western Han Dynasty chose scholars to study Confucian classics to dethrone all other schools of thought.But there are so many scholars, and everyone wants to be an official, who to let or not let who to be?To this end, the Western Han dynasty invented three kinds of official selection system — all the eastern Han dynasty succession — these three kinds of official selection system are: inspection system, recruitment system and appointment system.Let me briefly explain the three kinds of official selection systems.”Inspection system” : “inspection” is to inspect talents, “ju” is to recommend outstanding talents to the court;After arriving at the central government, he first served as an attendant to the emperor for a period of time, known as “Lang”.Lang officials who perform well can become official officials in central government offices or local governments.What types of people are recommended?There are three common ones: “dutiful son”, “honest official” and “scholar”.”Filial son” is filial son, “lian official” is incorruptible officials, these two later called “filial integrity”.Xiucai was an outstanding talent and was later renamed MAO CAI to avoid liu Xiu’s name.So “inspection system” simply speaking, is a bottom-up system of official selection.But it is too difficult for scholars to become officials by “inspection system”, because the quota of inspection is too few, “Xiaoliang” only one out of 200,000 people, “MAO” even less, one in each state, than the current provincial college entrance examination champion difficulty is also high.Therefore, the Western Han dynasty made another “recruitment system”.The system of imperial recruitment was to recruit talents to work in the government, which was called zheng by the emperor directly and Bi by the central government and local governments.”Conscription system” is a top-down official selection system. For example, Liu Bei asked Zhuge Liang, “Sir, please leave the mountain”, which is actually the specific application of “conscription system”.The “renzi system” is easier to understand — officials can recommend their own children.However, in order to put a FIG leaf on the shameless policy, a restriction was made that not every official was eligible for the treatment. They had to have worked for three years and had an annual salary of more than 2,000 stone, which is equivalent to today’s provincial or ministerial level officials.The system has been designed and talent selection has begun.What are the criteria for selecting talent?Sorry, there is no fixed standard.At that time, there was no civil servant exam like now. You got the first place in the exam and you were the first. No one could take away your qualification to be a civil servant.In the Han Dynasty, there were no examinations, and those who wanted to become an official depended on their “reputation”.What is “prestige”?Word of mouth approval of a person.In modern parlance, it means “if you say you can, you can, or you can’t”.In this situation, the society began to judge people.There appeared many famous scholars, the so-called “famous scholars”.There were famous scholars in the past, but most of them were scholars with good morals and knowledge.However, this was different in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Although there were quite a few real celebrities, more people gained their fame by publicity.So all of a sudden there were famous people everywhere, but a large number of them were there just to make up the number — but whether they were real or fake, they had great appeal and motivation in the society at that time.The emergence of “famous” at the same time, but also the emergence of “big family”.”Shijia Da zu” literally means a family in which several generations of people study and work as officials.Because investigations and expeditions depended on prestige, the children of the bureaucracy took full advantage, both of their families’ help in building their reputations and of the cobweb of interests.You think, the officials responsible for recommending and recruiting, their social circle is mainly focused on the bureaucratic class, of course, only the children of the bureaucratic class, the bottom of the excellent talents, unless particularly outstanding, otherwise it is difficult to enter the vision of the recommendation.And there is a trade-off.You recommend my son this time, I’ll recruit your grandson next time.It is hard for people from outside the bureaucracy to have a chance.You see, recommending or consigning the sons of officials can be richly rewarded, much more useful than recommending or consigning a peddler of straw sandals.So When Liu Bei was a teenager, he was selling straw sandals in the street, while Yuan Shao was already recommended as a “boy Boy lang” and became a reserve official.This is not to mention the “renzi system”, in which all the officials are second-generation officials.Under these three kinds of official selection systems, there came into being big families whose children were “permanent officials”, and even “super big families” who were professional officials, namely the so-called “four generations and three gong” (four generations of the family have held the position of three gong).Only two families in the Eastern Han dynasty accomplished this feat. One was Yuan Shao, the representative of yuan family in Runan.One is The Yang family of Hong Nong, the representative Yang Xiu.This kind of big family has great influence in politics.Their children served as officials for several generations and accumulated a wide range of connections in officialdom.They also had the right to recommend and select talents, so many scholars would depend on them, and eventually, their disciples and former officials would spread all over the world, forming a community of common interests.In addition to politics, big families also have great influence on culture, which is mainly reflected in academic ability.Cultural influence is not easy to obtain, reputations can be faked, and academic standards are not.And since ancient times, people have always been gentle. If you want others to accept you, you don’t have to say it with your mouth. You have to show real skills.The Yuan Shao family, for example, studied “yi” for generations in Runan and formed a unique theoretical system. Yuan Jing, the great-grandfather of Yuan Shao, wrote a monograph of more than 300,000 words on this topic, which is still a great hero today.Throughout the yuan family, there were people who opened classes to teach their family’s understanding of “yi” and received so many students that Mr. Qian Mu, the historian, said, “It is the academic support behind many families that enabled them to last for a hundred years.”In addition to “famous scholars” and “big families”, a third change also took place in the scholars, a large number of gentry landlords appeared.The process is easy to understand.In ancient China, land was the greatest wealth, and once people got rich, the first thing they thought of was buying land. The so-called “gentleman does not speak of profit” is just lip service. Most of the scholars, like the rich people of other classes, would frantically merge land and become “gentry landlords” after they developed.At that time, various counties and counties of the Eastern Han dynasty were filled with gentry landlords of all sizes.After they became landlords, the scholars also felt that they were mainly pure compared with other classes. To distinguish them, landlords from the merchant and military classes were also given the name “Han landlords”.For example, Yuan Shao was a gentry landlord, while Cao Cao is usually considered a Cold landlord.But all landlords are the same — what if we have more land?He that seeketh a plowman first seeketh the poor of his kindred.When there is too much land for the poor of the same race to grow, other landless farmers are required.These peasants went to the farms of the “gentry landlords” to cultivate in busy time, practice martial arts and repair the turret in slack time to prevent thieves from attacking the farms, and became the private arms of the gentry landlords.Does this sound familiar to you?Yeah, it’s the same as the tyrant landlord we talked about.This process, in history, is called “aristocratic strengthening”.In our last article, we mentioned that “a special force became a powerful landlord”, which is the scholar.At this stage, the scholars were politically powerful, culturally powerful, economically rich and militarily armed.Political, cultural, economic and military in one, has officially grown into a behemoth with the potential to split the country.At the same time of “aristocratic landlords strengthening”, the original powerful landlords are not idle, they are engaged in “aristocratic landlords gentry” – since reading Confucian classics can become an official, our children also go to read, become an official, our family wealth will have a protection umbrella?It is equivalent to the current business family must let children to take an examination of civil servants, a reason.So gradually, the land of the Eastern Han dynasty was full of powerful landlords with gentry backgrounds — they were officials in the central government, officials in local areas and overlords in the countryside, and became the most important political force in the Eastern Han Dynasty.However, no matter how the scholars expanded, they were still willing to be the younger brother of the Emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty — the emperor let our children and grandchildren, all the officials are making money, we have what dissatisfaction?Why oppose him?Why change the power structure?But the point is, there’s a problem with the emperor, too.What’s wrong with the emperor’s boss?This article is long enough