Asthma needs medication, otherwise it is difficult to control

2022-05-22 0 By

Bronchial asthma, also known as asthma, is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that involves a variety of cells and cell components.Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and therefore may have different clinical phenotypes.The clinical symptoms of typical asthma can be repeated attacks of wheezing and shortness of breath, accompanied or not accompanied by chest tightness, cough and other symptoms, often at night and morning attacks, attacks can also be accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness and variable airflow restriction.Atypical asthma includes cough variant asthma, chest tightness variant asthma, and occulting asthma.Cough variant asthma has variable airflow limitation, but does not have the clinical manifestations of typical asthma such as wheezing and shortness of breath.The only or main clinical manifestation of variant asthma is chest tightness, accompanied by variable airflow limitation, but also without wheezing or shortness of breath.Occulting asthma does not show recurrent wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or coughing, but there is a chronic increase in airway responsiveness.With both typical and atypical asthma, structural changes in the airway, known as airway remodeling, can occur as the disease progresses and the course of the disease is prolonged.In addition, according to clinical manifestations, asthma can be divided into acute attack period, chronic duration and clinical control period.Acute attack period is to point to appear suddenly gasp, shortness of breath, frowsty bosom, cough wait for a symptom, or original symptom aggravates, and have the characteristic that expiratory flow reduces, its happen more as a result of contact allergen, stimulant or the reason such as respiratory tract infection.Chronic duration refers to a period of more than 4 weeks in which patients have no symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, no acute attack within 1 year, and normal lung function.In addition, the severity of chronic asthma can be divided into intermittent state, mild persistence, moderate persistence and severe persistence according to the frequency of daytime and nighttime symptoms and lung function.In the initial treatment of chronic asthma, the judgment of its severity is related to the patient’s choice of drug therapy.And asthma acute attack, the severity of performance is different, can appear in a few hours or days, and even in a few minutes to life threatening, so also should make the right judgment, so as to take effective symptomatic treatment in time.For the treatment of asthma, the main aim is to control the symptoms, maintain the normal physiological activities of patients, at the same time to minimize the frequency of acute attacks, reduce the risk of death, irreversible damage to lung function and drug-related adverse reactions.Drug therapy mainly includes control drugs, remission drugs and additional treatment drugs for severe asthma.Invasion control drugs are used to control the symptoms of asthma through anti-inflammatory action. These drugs require daily and long-term use, including inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS), systemic sex hormones, leukotriene modulators, long-acting β2 agonists (LABA), slow-release theophylline, methylsulfamast, sodium glycyrate, etc.Palliative medications that rapidly relieve bronchospasm and thus relieve the symptoms of asthma are mainly used when symptoms are present and include fast-acting inhaled and short-acting oral beta-2 agonists, inhaled anticholinergic drugs, short-acting theophylline and systemic sex hormones.The adjunctive drugs for severe asthma are mainly biological targeted drugs and macrolides.Among them, glucocorticoids are the most effective drugs in controlling airway inflammation, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, alleviating the severity or symptoms of attacks, reducing the frequency of attacks, improving lung function and patients’ quality of life, and reducing mortality.It requires a smaller dose and has fewer systemic adverse reactions.In addition to glucocorticoids, leukotriene modulators are one of the long-term control agents that can be used alone as a substitute for mild asthma and as a combination for moderate to severe asthma, including leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.Leukotriene receptor antagonists are mainly used in China, which can alleviate symptoms, improve lung function and reduce the occurrence of asthma deterioration.Montelukast sodium is a powerful selective leukotriene receptor antagonist, which can specifically inhibit cyste-leukotriene receptors, inhibit the increase of vascular permeability, reduce inflammatory exudation, thereby inhibiting allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, relieving tracheal edema, and improving bronchospasm symptoms of patients.In addition, Montelukast sodium also has good anti-inflammatory and bronchial protective effects, and the incidence of adverse reactions is low, no obvious drug resistance.Asthma medication should be adjusted according to symptom control and risk factor level, and palliative drugs should be used as needed to relieve asthma symptoms quickly, and control drugs should be used regularly to maintain symptom control.Conclusion with asthma development related to many factors, including genetics, allergen suction, and the precipitating factor, such as air pollution, smoking, strenuous exercise, and its incidence worldwide rising and the trend of younger age, such as attack are not timely and effective treatment, will pose a threat to health and life safety of patients.Therefore, asthma patients should pay attention to avoid inducing factors in daily life, take protective measures when going out, carry treatment drugs, and follow the doctor’s advice to use drugs.In addition, can also carry on the appropriate exercise, in order to improve the body immunity.[1] Chinese Medical Association Respiratory Branch of asthma group.[2] Wang J, Wang J, Wang J, et al. Asthma: a review [J].Clinical efficacy of Montelukast sodium combined with ipratropium bromide in the treatment of elderly patients with acute bronchial asthma [J].Chinese Modern Doctor, 2021(25):39-42.[3] Su Aifeng.Therapeutic effect of Sinbicoturbule combined with Montelukast sodium in the treatment of cough variant asthma [J].Medical Informatics, 2013(2):201-202.