How can new China recover 8,000 square kilometers of its territory without firing a single shot?
The decline of the late Qing dynasty deprived China of millions of square kilometers of land.Changes in national boundaries are a common occurrence in history, but we feel regretful as those who lost our territory.At that time, the Qing government had signed international treaties on behalf of China to demarcate the border, and the land legally no longer belonged to us.However, many border areas have complex terrain with few or no local residents, and the boundary was not fully delineated when the treaty was signed, or the wording was not clear enough, or the terrain and features were changed, leaving many ambiguities.China was in the midst of a civil war and a war against Japanese aggression for decades until the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and had no time to worry about demarcating its borders. As a result, some of its territory was taken by its neighbors, intentionally or unintentionally, thankfully.After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, New China made great efforts to develop good-neighborly relations of friendship and cooperation with its neighbors and gradually settled border disputes.So far, we have signed new border treaties with most of our neighbors that clearly delineate our borders.We recovered more than 8,000 square kilometers without using any force or firing a single shot.The largest chunk of the more than 8,000 square kilometers is the Darak region, recovering 5,310 square kilometers.The Darak region lies on the border between China’s Tibet and the Indian subcontinent, north of Kashmir.Historically, the Dalak kingdom had subjugated the Mughal empire in both Tibet and mainland India.In the early Qing Dynasty, Dalak was part of China as a vassal of Tibet.But when the British colonized the Indian subcontinent, they swallowed Darak with them.So it was right that India inherited the British colony after independence and claimed Darak as its own.After partition, Darak was divided along with Kashmir.In 1963, when China and Pakistan demarcated at the watershed, China gained 5,310 square kilometers and Pakistani Kashmir 1,940 square kilometers.We need to remember that there is still a significant part of Darak occupied by Indian Kashmir and areas such as southern Tibet which are not demarcated yet.The second largest territory recovered by The People’s Republic of China is the Sherxili region on the border between China and Kazakhstan, covering an area of over 1,200 square kilometers. Negotiations and handover of the territory were completed in 1994.Tajikistan is also handing back more than 1,000 square kilometers of territory to China, both of which were under Soviet control when China began negotiating settlements with the newly formed Central Asian states.In addition, China also negotiated with Russia to resolve territorial issues such as Heixiazi Island and Abagetu Zhuzhu. Although the area is relatively small, it is of great significance. Even Russia made concessions, and what else can other countries say?China and Myanmar completed boundary negotiations in 1960. In order to protect the integrity of the local tribes, about 153 square kilometers of Pangma and other areas belonged to China. China also exchanged the Mengmao Triangle land for 189 square kilometers of Banhong and Banlao areas.In fact, the china-Myanmar border dispute was also the “masterpiece” of The British colonialists, including the “Piece horse Incident” in 1900.The last border to be negotiated was the Land border between China and Vietnam, which ended in 2009 and divided the disputed 227 square kilometers.Hope there will never be another war between the two countries, but if anyone challenges China’s bottom line, China will never be beaten without restraint.